Academic Reference

Oxford Research Encyclopedias (ORE) proved very popular, with customer demand leading us to introduce a new perpetual access purchase option that provides users with ongoing digital access, which significantly boosted revenue in the year. ORE also saw 2,000 new articles published as well as seven new print encyclopedias spanning 18 volumes.


Oxford Bibliographies Online piloted a new donation scheme enabling academic research authors to donate their fee to non-profit organization Room to Read which supports literacy in low-income countries. 46 authors choose this option, meaning more than $9,000 was pledged to charity. We plan to extend the program to other areas of our Reference publishing next year.


Our dictionaries publishing underwent significant change with Oxford Dictionaries rebranding to become Oxford Languages. This saw the launch of a new website and an expanded drive into new language data services for the technology sector, evidenced by a new partnership with to launch Lexico—a new consumer web dictionary combining our language content with’s consumer business competency. This new chapter will combine OUP’s 150 years of experience with technological innovation to deliver authoritative and evidence-based content for languages around the world.

Oxford Global Languages (OGL)—our ongoing project to create lexical data for 100 languages—shifted its focus to development of high-quality lexical data for use by technology partners in their existing platforms and products. As a result, the OGL websites were closed to focus on producing high-quality lexical data which can be used by developers via our API. We completed new datasets for Marathi, Igbo, and Yoruba, as well as seven other languages, and added them to the Oxford Languages Developer API Portal, along with our enhanced English, Russian, and Arabic datasets. In addition, we published a major enhancement of the Hindi and Hindi-English datasets through OGL, making it the most comprehensive linked set of lexical data for Hindi available anywhere.


Other key activities included major renewals with large technology partners such as Apple, Google, and Microsoft; an Oxford English Dictionary (OED) update greatly expanding coverage of Nigerian English vocabulary; and the trial of a new computationally assisted way to create bilingual dictionary reversals for under-resourced languages.